Additional Articles and Writings

Below is a collection of publications related to control theory, research, and practice of Control Therapy and which further our understanding regarding the positive and healthy uses of human control and self-control for individuals, families, societies and planetary health and well-being.

For additional articles and writings by Deane H. Shapiro, Jr., please visit his site at DeaneHShapiroJr.org

Control Therapy: An overview and personal observations from life’s golden third (PDF file) Shapiro,D.H., (2003) Control Therapy: An overview and personal observations from life’s golden third. Constructivism in the Human Sciences, 8(2), 137-150

Control Therapy: Contributions of Eastern and Western Approaches to Psychotherapy (PDF file) Shapiro, SL, Astin, JA, Shapiro, DH (2000) Control Therapy: Contributions of Eastern and Western Approaches to Psychotherapy. In Weidong, W, Sasaki, Y, & Haruki, Y (Eds). Bodywork and Psychotherapy in the East Netherlands: Eburon Delft, 223-236.

Control Therapy. Encyclopedia of Psychology (PDF file) Control Therapy. Encyclopedia of Psychology. Shapiro, DH, Astin, JA, Shapiro, SL, Soucar, E Santerre, C. (2010) Control Therapy. in The Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology 4th Edition., Vol 1 I. Weiner & W. E. Craighead (Eds.) pp.404-406.

Control Therapy. The Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology and Behavioral Science (PDF file) Shapiro, DH, Astin, JA, Shapiro, SL, Santerre, C. (2004) Control Therapy. in Craighead, W.E & Nemeroff, CB (Eds) The Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology and Behavioral Science. 3rd Edition., pp.223-224.

Control Therapy. The Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology and Behavioral Science (PDF file) Shapiro, DH, Astin, JA, Shapiro, SL, Santerre, C. (2001) Control Therapy. in Craighead, W.E & Nemeroff, CB (Eds) The Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology and Behavioral Science. 3rd Edition., Vol 1, pp.361-364.

Self-Control 2010 (PDF file) Self-Control: Encyclopedia of Psychology Shapiro,DH, Shapiro,SL, Astin, JA, & Shapiro,JF (2010) Self-Control. in The Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology. Fourth Edition, Vol 4, I. Weiner & W. E. Craighead (Eds.). New York: John Wiley & Sons. 1528-1530

Self-Control: Encyclopedia of Psychology 2004 (PDF file) Self-control Shapiro, DH, Astin, JA, Shapiro, SL in in Craighead, W.E.&] Nemeroff, CB (Eds) Encyclopedia of Psychology and Neuroscience (2004), Wiley : New York, pp. 857, 858; (with supplemental references)

Self-Control: Encyclopedia of Psychology 1987 (PDF file) Shapiro, D. H. Self-control and Self-Control Strategies. In Corsini, R. (ed) Encyclopedia of Psychology. New York: Wiley, Vol. 3, 285-288, 1984; *Abridged version (1986) 1013-1015; 2nd Edition, 1994.

Self-Control: Encyclopedia of Psychology 1984 (PDF file) Self-control: Shapiro, DH, in Corsini, R, (1984) Encyclopedia of Psychology, Wiley : New York, pp. 285-288

Self-Control and positive Health. In R. Walsh and D. H. Shapiro (eds) Beyond Health and Normality: Explorations of Exceptional Psychological Wellbeing. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1983, pp. 371-387.

Controlling Ourselves, Controlling Our World: Psychology's Role in Understanding Positive and Negative Consequences of Seeking and Gaining Control - (PDF file) American Psychologist, Vol. 51. No. 12. 121l-123O, 1996

Supplimental Material to Controlling Ourselves, Controlling Our World (PDF)

Additional Supplemental Material to Controlling Ourselves, Controlling Our World (PDF file)

Zen Meditation and Behavioral Self-Control Similarities, Differences, and Clinical Applications - (PDF file) American Psychologist,Vol. 31, No .1, July 1976

Psychological Control and Morbidity/Mortality in Breast Cancer Patients: A 20-Year Follow-Up Study (PDF file) John A. Astin , Johanna Shapiro & Deane Shapiro (2013): Behavioral Medicine, 39:1, 7-10

Supplimental Material on 20-Year Follow-Up Study (PDF)

Sense of control and adjustment to breast cancer: the importance of balancing control coping styles (PDF file) ) Astin, JA, Anton-Culver, H; Schwartz, CE, Shapiro, DH, C; McQuade, J; Breuer, AM; Taylor, T; Lee, H. ; Kurosaki, T. (1999) Sense of control and adjustment to breast cancer: the importance of balancing control coping styles. Behavioral medicine 25,3, 101-109.

A Longitudinal Study of Psycho-Social Coping and Sense of Control in Women Diagnosed with Breast Cancer (PDF file) Deane Shapiro, Ph.D.; Hoda Anton-Culver, Ph.D.; Anne Marie Breuer, B.S.; Tom Taylor, Ph.D.; Tom Kurosaki, M.S.; Jim McQuade, M.D. - The 6th Annual California Registries Conference

Supplemental Material to Breast Cancer Studies (PDF file)

Potential Use of Control Therapy in Genetic Counseling (PDF file) Deane Shapiro, Ph.D.; Potential Use of Control Therapy in Genetic Counseling: Grant Ideas and Hypotheses

Dimensions relevant to the health care and therapeutic use of self-control strategies (PDF file) Deane H. Shapiro, Jr. Dimensions relevant to the health care and therapeutic use of self-control strategies: A systems model for applied research. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine. (University of Chicago Press, Division of Biological Sciences), 1983, 26 (4) pp. 568-586.

A Content Analysis of Views of Self-Control: Relation to Positive and Negative Valence, and Implications for a Working Definition (PDF file) Deane H. Shapiro, Jr., Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, 1983, 8, (1), 73-86.

Self-control concerns for men and women (PDF file) Shapiro, D. H. and Shapiro, J. Self-control concerns for men and women: Refinement and extension of a contsruct. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 1983, 39 (6) 878-892.

Self-Control: Refinement of a construct (PDF file) Shapiro, D. H. Self-Control: Refinement of a construct. Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, 1983, 8 (3) 443-460.

A factor analytic study of perceived characteristics of person (PDF file) Shapiro, D. H. A factor analytic study of perceived characteristics of person, man, and woman with high and low psychological health: Relation to a model of control. Psychologia: An International Journal of psychological sciences, 1983, 26 (3) 142-158.

A preliminary inquiry into physicians' perceptions of patient self-control (PDF file) Shapiro, J. and Shapiro, D. H. A preliminary inquiry into physicians' perceptions of patient self-control. Journal of Medical Education, 1980, 55, 704-708.

A control model of psychological health (PDF file) Shapiro, J. and Shapiro, D. H. A control model of psychological health: Relation to traditional and liberated sex-role stereotypes: Investigation and extension of a construct. Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, 1985, 12, 3-4, pp. 433-447.

Human Control (PDF file) Shapiro, D.H., Evans, G., and Shapiro, J. Human Control. Science, (Technical Comment), 1987, 238, 260.

Self-Control, Sense of Control, and Control-Enhancing Interventions (PDF file) Supplmental Material: Shapiro, D.H., Evans, G., and Shapiro, J. Self-Control, Sense of Control, and Control-Enhancing Interventions: Critical theoretical, empirical and Clinical Questions Remain

The Relationship of Self-Control to Psychological Health & Social Desirability (PDF file) Shapiro, D.H. The Relationship of Self-Control to Psychological Health & Social Desirability: Toward the Development of Normative Scales for a Clinical Assessment Inventory Based on a Control Model of Health. Psychologia, 28 (4), 237-248, 1985.

Measuring the psychological construct of control: Applications to transpersonal psychology (PDF file) Astin, JA & Shapiro, DH - Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 29, 1, 63-72.

Coping With Loss of Control in the Practice of Medicine (PDF file) Johanna Shapiro, PhD, John Astin, PhD, Shauna L. Shapiro, PhD, Daniel Robitshek, MD, Deane H. Shapiro, PhD Shapiro J, Astin J, Shapiro SL, Robitshek D, Shapiro DH. (2011). Although the quest for active control and mastery can be seen as a central thread that ties together important aspects of human experience, we are frequently confronted with the reality that much of what is encountered in life lies outside our active instrumental control. Control must involve finding healthy and life-affirming ways to exercise personal mastery, and identifying constructive ways to respond to the lack of control that pervades the human condition.

Supplimental Material: The Human Quest for Control and its Relevance for Medicine (PDF)

A Sense of Control, Health, and Illness (PDF file) Shapiro, DH. Maintaining a Sense of Control in Addressing Perennial Issues of a Personal, Interpersonal, and Cosmic Nature: Reflections on Bali. International Journal of Psychosomatics,37,1990,1-4,40-49.

Self-Control and Other Control in Cross-Cultural Perspective: Balinese Trance and Religious Beliefs (PDF file) Shapiro, D.H. - ReVision: The Journal of Consciousness and Change., 1989, 12 (2), 33-46.

Supplimental Material on Bali (PDF)

A colleague comment on Bali and Sense of Control (PDF)

Literary Narratives Examining Control, Loss of Control, and Illness (PDF file) Shapiro, J., Prislin, M, Shapiro, D.H., & Lee, D (2000). Literary Narratives Examining Control, Loss of Control, and Illness: Perspectives of Patient, Family, and Physician. Families, Systems, and Health, 18,4,441- 454.

Dysfunctional Control: Negative Consequences of Seeking and Maintaining Control (PDF file) Evans, G; Shapiro, DH, and Lewis, M. (1993). Dysfunctional Control: Negative Consequences of Seeking and Maintaining Control. British Journal of Psychology.84, 255-273.

The courage to change and the serenity to accept (PDF file) Astin, J, Shapiro, SL, Schwartz, CE & Shapiro, DH (2001) The courage to change and the serenity to accept: Further comments on fighting spirit and breast cancer. (responses by Steven Greer and Margaret Watson). Advances 17,2, pp. 83-156

The Construct of Control in Mind-Body Medicine (PDF) Astin, JA, Shapiro, SL, Lee, RA, Shapiro, DH (1999) The construct of control in mind-body medicine: Implications for health care. Alternative Therapies In Health and Medicine 5,2, 42-47

SCI: Foundational Studies and Control Profiles

For additonal translations of the SCI, see networking - additional articles, translations.

Measuring the Psychological Construct of Control (PDF file) Shapiro, DH, Potkin, S; Jin, Y; Brown, B; Carreon, D.(1993) Measuring the psychological construct of control: Discriminant, Divergent, and Incremental Validity of the Shapiro Control Inventory and Rotter's and Wallston's Locus of Control Scales. International Journal of Psychosomatics, 40 (1-4), 35-46.

Normal Screening Assessment (PDF file)

Supplimental material on the four clinical groups: Depression, Generalized Anxiety, Panic Attacks, and Borderline (PDF file)

Perceived control and self control in four clinical populations, Bo Brown, M.D. (PDF file)

A psychological “sense of control profile” of patients with Eating Disorders (PDF file) Shapiro, DH, Blinder, B; Hagmann, Jennifer, Pituck, S. (1993) A psychological “sense of control profile” of patients with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, Psychological Reports, 73, 531-541.

A Control Profile of Adult Children of Alcoholics (PDF file) Shapiro, DH, Weatherford, V. Kaufmann, E; Broenen, R (1994). A Control Profile of Adult Children of Alcoholics, American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse. 20,2, 247-262.

Aging and Sense of Control (PDF file) Shapiro, DH, Sandman, C, Grossman, M., & Grossman, B. (1995) Aging and Sense of Control: Initial Findings. Psychological Report, 77, 616-618.

Measuring Sense of Control in the Aged (PDF file) Shapiro, DH, Supplemental Material - >Measuring Sense of Control in the Aged: Background and Introduction to the Shapiro Control Inventory

Assessing the relationship between a multidimensional psychological "control profile" and cardiovascular risk (PDF file) Shapiro, DH, Lindberg, J; Daniels, JM, Breuer, AM; & Astin, JM (1994). Assessing the relationship between a multidimensional psychological "control profile" and cardiovascular risk. International Journal of Psychosomatics,41,11-16.

Changes in mode of control and self-control for post myocardial infarction patients evidencing Type A behavior (PDF file) Shapiro, DH. Friedman, M, and Piaget, G. Changes in mode of control and self-control for post myocardial infarction patients evidencing Type A behavior: The effects of a cognitive/behavioral intervention and/or cardiac counseling. International Journal of Psychosomatic Medicine, 199l, 38(1-4), 4-12.

A Mode of Control and Self-control Profile for Long-term Meditators (PDF file) Deane H. Shapiro, Jr., Ph.D., A mode of control and self-control profile for longterm meditators. A Retrospective and Prospective Assessment. Psychologia 1992,35 (1) 1-11.

Reliability of four quadrant model of self-control (PDF file) Shapiro, D. H. Reliability of four quadrant model of self-control: Ratings by experts in Type A Behavior/Health Psychology; East-West Psychology, and sex role psychology. Psychologia: An International Journal of psychological sciences, the Orient, 1982, 25, (3), 149-154.

Positive and Negative aspects of assertiveness and yielding (PDF file)

Case Studies

Clinical Applications of a Control Model of Psychological Health (PDF file) Shapiro, D. H., Clinical Applications of a Control Model of Psychological Health: Two Case Studies of Stress Related Disorders. The Psychotherapy Patient 1990,7 (1-2), 169-198.

An Overview of a Control-Based Approach; to Clinical Treatment: Mental and Physical Health Case Studies: Chapter 12 - Control Therapy (PDF)

A Case of Couples Therapy: A Control-Based Approach: Chapter 13 - Control Therapy (PDF)

A combined personal self-management and environmental consultation strategy for altering school truancy and petty theft (PDF) Deane H. Shapiro, Jr., Ph.D. A combined personal self-management and environmental consultation strategy for altering school truancy and petty theft. In J. D. Krumboltz and C. E. Thoresen (eds). Counseling Methods. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1976, pp. 477-56.

A case study addressing issues of how to deal with an uncooperative client, addressing self-sabotage; the use of imagery in decision making; self monitoring and self reinforcement; family contracting; school consultation; relationship variables.

An Applied Clinical Combination of Zen Meditation and Behavioral Self-Control Strategies (PDF)

The Effects of a “Zen Meditation – Behavioral Self-Management (PDF)

Zen Meditation and Behavioral Self-Control Skills Applied to a Case of Generalized Anxiety (PDF)

Meditation and Psychotherapy: A Case Study (PDF) by Deane H. Shapiro, Jr., Ph.D. (2001) Meditation and Psychotherapy: A Case Study. In Wedding, D., & Corsini, RJ (Eds) Case Studies in Psychotherapy 3rd Edition. . Itasca, Illinois: FE Peacock Publishers, pp. 225-242 (Other case studies by Carl Rogers, Albert Ellis, David Barlow, Aaron Beck, Irvin Yalom, Arnold Lazarus, Fritz Perls)

This case study is included here because it includes information on early roots of Control Therapy including comments on a) the orientation of the therapist (Dr Shapiro); b) the therapist’s belief in the efficacy of the strategy; c) combining meditation with other strategies: e.g., behavioral self observation; assertiveness training d) the role of relationship.

Control Content Analysis: Foundational Studies and Scoring

There are six articles below which address the utility and importance of listening to “speech” (verbal samples) and scoring them on dimensions of control. The Control Content Analysis Scales (SCCAS) can be a complement to the SCI Control Profile. Whereas the latter is a paper and pencil test, the SCCAS are a systematic way to code patient speech. The material below provides an overview summary of the different scales (article one); the utilization of the SCCAS with a psychiatric outpatient sample (articles 2-4); the use of the SCCAS with dreams (using Positron Emission Tomography). (5)

Finally, a more in-depth discussion and manual of the SCCAS is provided in the manual (article 6).

Read More: Overview of the Six Articles.

  1. The Measurement of Control and Self-Control: Background, Rationale, and Description of a Control Content Analysis Scale (PDF file) Deane H. Shapiro, Jr. and Daniel E. Bates, Psychologia, 1990, 33, 147-162

  2. A Control Content Analysis Scale Applied to Verbal Samples of Psychiatric Patients (PDF) Shapiro, DH, Bates, DE, Greenzang, T, and Carrere, S. A Control Content Analysis Scale Applied to Verbal Samples of Psychiatric Patients: Correlation with Anxiety and Hostility Scales. Psychologia 1991, 34(3) 86-97.

  3. The Application of Computerized Content Analysis of Speech to the Diagnostic Process in a Psychiatric Outpatient Clinic (PDF) Gottschalk, LA; Stein, M; & Shapiro, DH. (1997) The application of computerized content analysis of speech to the diagnostic process in a psychiatric outpatient clinic. Journal of Clinical Psyhcology,53(5),427-441.

  4. Assessing a Patient's "Control Profile" (PDF) Deane H. Shapiro, Jr., Ph.D.; Madhu Sheila Josephs, Ph.D; Ellie Nezami, Ph.D.; Lynn Nelson, Ph.D.; Marsha Stein, Ph.D.; & Louis Gottschalk, M.D. - Assessing a Patient's "Control Profile" in a Psychiatric Outpatient Clinic Relationship to Anxiety and Depression Inventories.

  5. Exploring the relationship between having control and losing control to functional neuroanatomy within the sleeping state (PDF) Shapiro, DH, Wu, J; ; Hong, C; Buchsbaum, M; Elderkin-Thompson, V; Hillard, D.; Hetu, M; and Friedman, G. (1995) Exploring the relationship between having control and losing control to functional neuroanatomy within the sleeping state. Psychologia, ,38 (3),133-145.

  6. The Control Content Analysis Manual (PDF) Shapiro, DH,.

Reviewer Comment on articles one and two.

Supplimental material: PET Scan Pictures of low and high sense of control dreams.

SSCI (Shapiro Self-Control Inventory)

This inventory was one of the pilot studies in exploring issues of personal self-control, areas where individuals felt they wanted more “self-control.” It explored respondents’ motivational issues, self-efficacy beliefs, concerns, areas of potential resistance to success, personal responsibility, “Freedom reflex” (willing to learn from others; and possible self-control methods for change. This material is covered in Sections 1-5 below. One section of the SSCI related to Intimacy and self-control as a specific “domain” area. (Section Six). Section 7 and 8 explored the Modes of Control: assertive, yielding, overcontrol.

Finally, the SSCI asked questions which were more narrow to broad about self-control, just for the heuristic interest. The range of questions shows the early efforts to, in a positive frame, to explore the large canvas of control. On the existential end, some questions , related to self-control and how individuals have sought to cope with some of the most challenging issues of life (relational endings, illness, personal tragedies) including facing their own death. On the narrower end, some questions looked at how individuals felt about what might be considered more mundane areas of involuntary (loss of control) issues like sneezing, yawning!

The material here is presented by section, with the respondent’s answers. The reader is invited to peruse these questions and responses for:

  • Their heuristic value—the range of topics which these health care professionals felt self-control applied to their own lives.
  • To note the early “sketches” of Control Therapy---self-control concerns, issues of motivation, adherence, resistance, practice
  • “Seed ideas” for further research: for example, section 5, looking at cognitions right before the practice of a self-control strategy (for intention and goals); as well as adherence/compliance.

Read More.

DEVELOPING A CONTROL PROFILE:
Life Domains and Sense of control

After the data collection from the SSCI (above), we decided to develop a control profile using a likert scale (so no qualitative data). This draft is presented here, again, for heuristic purposes, to show the themes being wrestled with and the different dimensions discussed.

Specifically, we wanted the Control Profile to include:

  • All “Life domains”: body, mind, self, (Part One); as well as professional, interpersonal, political and economic, natural disasters and religions spiritual issues
  • Parts One and Two list these domains (and topics under each) on the vertical axis, and the questions related to control on the horizontal axis. The questions relate to need and desire for control (1,3.5); assessment of level of control in this area (2); including feels of vulnerability (4);; your goal (5) and your self-efficacy belief about achieving your goal
  • Part Three looks at these domains regarding areas where control might be exercised regarding a specific event (multiple domains are provided) and asks; can you control the event; can you control your attention about the event; can you control your thoughts about the event; your feelings about it; your body toward it; can you control the environment with regard to it.

Click read Here for these Charts.

Two other Tables are included here. One table (listed as 9), looks at the Multiple Domains, and asks the person how important each domain is to them; then to reflect on how much time is spent on each in a given week. Then the respondent is asked to rank order the ideal in terms of which levels are most important; and the ideal amount of time which would be spent on each.

The second table (listed as 10) looks at specific areas within each domain, and asks the respondent to reflect on their motivation in that area (and provides some examples of motivations).

Click read here for these charts.

These Control Profile drafts are intended to help individuals a) recognize in an overview the range of domains which impact their life; b) assess their Control Profile in those domains; c) see goals and priorities; and d) looking at motivations within each area.

SITUATION SPECIFIC VIGNETTES AND THE FOUR MODES OF CONTROL

This study presents material on how individuals respond to different gradated situational vignettes, ranging from those involving interpersonal communication and intimacy, to dealing with a boss. Specifically, we were looking at the relationships among

  • Personality variable of assertiveness and yielding (real and ideal)
  • Gradient of situational vignette variable
  • And an individual’s expressed attitudinal and behavioral responses (both within nuances of a vignette; and across different vignettes)

The first section is a brief overview of the study, the vignettes, the means of assessing assertive and yielding responses (both positive and negative), (real and ideal) and the applications to the SCI, the SCCAS (Control Content Analysis Scales) , and Control Therapy. Subsequent sections report the data from each of the different vignettes, (and then a summary of six cases across vignettes) and can be clicked on independently. In each section, in addition to providing the above information, we also offer suggestions for future research, and propose -- based on the data and our own assessment-- what would be qualities of wise, psychologically healthy response(s) in each section.1

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1This material was collected in l979, and preliminary data analysis done in l980-81. Some of the comments on psychologically response(s) and additional JS comments on coding were added in 2018.

Tapes

Clinical Applications Of Meditation And Behavioral Self-Control Strategies and Instructions in Meditation And Behavioral Self-Management.

Meditation Instructions

 

Read the Instructions