Below is a collection of publications related to control theory, research, and practice of Control Therapy and which further our understanding regarding the positive and healthy uses of human control and self-control for individuals, families, societies and planetary health and well-being.
For additional articles and writings by Deane H. Shapiro, Jr., please visit his site at DeaneHShapiroJr.org
Control Therapy. Encyclopedia of Psychology (PDF file) Control Therapy. Encyclopedia of Psychology. Shapiro, DH, Astin, JA, Shapiro, SL, Soucar, E Santerre, C. (2010) Control Therapy. in The Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology 4th Edition., Vol 1 I. Weiner & W. E. Craighead (Eds.) pp.404-406.
Self-Control 2010 (PDF file) Self-Control: Encyclopedia of Psychology Shapiro,DH, Shapiro,SL, Astin, JA, & Shapiro,JF (2010) Self-Control. in The Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology. Fourth Edition, Vol 4, I. Weiner & W. E. Craighead (Eds.). New York: John Wiley & Sons. 1528-1530
Self-Control and positive Health. In R. Walsh and D. H. Shapiro (eds) Beyond Health and Normality: Explorations of Exceptional Psychological Wellbeing. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1983, pp. 371-387.
A control model of psychological health (PDF file) Shapiro, J. and Shapiro, D. H. A control model of psychological health: Relation to traditional and liberated sex-role stereotypes: Investigation and extension of a construct. Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, 1985, 12, 3-4, pp. 433-447.
Coping With Loss of Control in the Practice of Medicine (PDF file) Johanna Shapiro, PhD, John Astin, PhD, Shauna L. Shapiro, PhD, Daniel Robitshek, MD, Deane H. Shapiro, PhD Shapiro J, Astin J, Shapiro SL, Robitshek D, Shapiro DH. (2011). Although the quest for active control and mastery can be seen as a central thread that ties together important aspects of human experience, we are frequently confronted with the reality that much of what is encountered in life lies outside our active instrumental control. Control must involve finding healthy and life-affirming ways to exercise personal mastery, and identifying constructive ways to respond to the lack of control that pervades the human condition.
A Sense of Control, Health, and Illness (PDF file) Shapiro, DH. Maintaining a Sense of Control in Addressing Perennial Issues of a Personal, Interpersonal, and Cosmic Nature: Reflections on Bali. International Journal of Psychosomatics,37,1990,1-4,40-49.
The courage to change and the serenity to accept (PDF file) Astin, J, Shapiro, SL, Schwartz, CE & Shapiro, DH (2001) The courage to change and the serenity to accept: Further comments on fighting spirit and breast cancer. (responses by Steven Greer and Margaret Watson). Advances 17,2, pp. 83-156
Measuring the Psychological Construct of Control (PDF file) Shapiro, DH, Potkin, S; Jin, Y; Brown, B; Carreon, D.(1993) Measuring the psychological construct of control: Discriminant, Divergent, and Incremental Validity of the Shapiro Control Inventory and Rotter's and Wallston's Locus of Control Scales. International Journal of Psychosomatics, 40 (1-4), 35-46.
Reliability of four quadrant model of self-control (PDF file) Shapiro, D. H. Reliability of four quadrant model of self-control: Ratings by experts in Type A Behavior/Health Psychology; East-West Psychology, and sex role psychology. Psychologia: An International Journal of psychological sciences, the Orient, 1982, 25, (3), 149-154.
A case study addressing issues of how to deal with an uncooperative client, addressing self-sabotage; the use of imagery in decision making; self monitoring and self reinforcement; family contracting; school consultation; relationship variables.
Meditation and Psychotherapy: A Case Study (PDF) by Deane H. Shapiro, Jr., Ph.D. (2001) Meditation and Psychotherapy: A Case Study. In Wedding, D., & Corsini, RJ (Eds) Case Studies in Psychotherapy 3rd Edition. . Itasca, Illinois: FE Peacock Publishers, pp. 225-242 (Other case studies by Carl Rogers, Albert Ellis, David Barlow, Aaron Beck, Irvin Yalom, Arnold Lazarus, Fritz Perls)
This case study is included here because it includes information on early roots of Control Therapy including comments on a) the orientation of the therapist (Dr Shapiro); b) the therapist’s belief in the efficacy of the strategy; c) combining meditation with other strategies: e.g., behavioral self observation; assertiveness training d) the role of relationship.
Control Content Analysis: Foundational Studies and Scoring
There are six articles below which address the utility and importance of listening to “speech” (verbal samples) and scoring them on dimensions of control. The Control Content Analysis Scales (SCCAS) can be a complement to the SCI Control Profile. Whereas the latter is a paper and pencil test, the SCCAS are a systematic way to code patient speech. The material below provides an overview summary of the different scales (article one); the utilization of the SCCAS with a psychiatric outpatient sample (articles 2-4); the use of the SCCAS with dreams (using Positron Emission Tomography). (5)
Finally, a more in-depth discussion and manual of the SCCAS is provided in the manual (article 6).
This inventory was one of the pilot studies in exploring issues of personal self-control, areas where individuals felt they wanted more “self-control.” It explored respondents’ motivational issues, self-efficacy beliefs, concerns, areas of potential resistance to success, personal responsibility, “Freedom reflex” (willing to learn from others; and possible self-control methods for change. This material is covered in Sections 1-5 below. One section of the SSCI related to Intimacy and self-control as a specific “domain” area. (Section Six). Section 7 and 8 explored the Modes of Control: assertive, yielding, overcontrol.
Finally, the SSCI asked questions which were more narrow to broad about self-control, just for the heuristic interest. The range of questions shows the early efforts to, in a positive frame, to explore the large canvas of control. On the existential end, some questions , related to self-control and how individuals have sought to cope with some of the most challenging issues of life (relational endings, illness, personal tragedies) including facing their own death. On the narrower end, some questions looked at how individuals felt about what might be considered more mundane areas of involuntary (loss of control) issues like sneezing, yawning!
The material here is presented by section, with the respondent’s answers. The reader is invited to peruse these questions and responses for:
Their heuristic value—the range of topics which these health care professionals felt self-control applied to their own lives.
To note the early “sketches” of Control Therapy---self-control concerns, issues of motivation, adherence, resistance, practice
“Seed ideas” for further research: for example, section 5, looking at cognitions right before the practice of a self-control strategy (for intention and goals); as well as adherence/compliance.
DEVELOPING A CONTROL PROFILE: Life Domains and Sense of control
After the data collection from the SSCI (above), we decided to develop a control profile using a likert scale (so no qualitative data). This draft is presented here, again, for heuristic purposes, to show the themes being wrestled with and the different dimensions discussed.
Specifically, we wanted the Control Profile to include:
All “Life domains”: body, mind, self, (Part One); as well as professional, interpersonal, political and economic, natural disasters and religions spiritual issues
Parts One and Two list these domains (and topics under each) on the vertical axis, and the questions related to control on the horizontal axis. The questions relate to need and desire for control (1,3.5); assessment of level of control in this area (2); including feels of vulnerability (4);; your goal (5) and your self-efficacy belief about achieving your goal
Part Three looks at these domains regarding areas where control might be exercised regarding a specific event (multiple domains are provided) and asks; can you control the event; can you control your attention about the event; can you control your thoughts about the event; your feelings about it; your body toward it; can you control the environment with regard to it.
Two other Tables are included here. One table (listed as 9), looks at the Multiple Domains, and asks the person how important each domain is to them; then to reflect on how much time is spent on each in a given week. Then the respondent is asked to rank order the ideal in terms of which levels are most important; and the ideal amount of time which would be spent on each.
The second table (listed as 10) looks at specific areas within each domain, and asks the respondent to reflect on their motivation in that area (and provides some examples of motivations).
These Control Profile drafts are intended to help individuals a) recognize in an overview the range of domains which impact their life; b) assess their Control Profile in those domains; c) see goals and priorities; and d) looking at motivations within each area.
SITUATION SPECIFIC VIGNETTES AND THE FOUR MODES OF CONTROL
This study presents material on how individuals respond to different gradated situational vignettes, ranging from those involving interpersonal communication and intimacy, to dealing with a boss. Specifically, we were looking at the relationships among
Personality variable of assertiveness and yielding (real and ideal)
Gradient of situational vignette variable
And an individual’s expressed attitudinal and behavioral responses (both within nuances of a vignette; and across different vignettes)
The first section is a brief overview of the study, the vignettes, the means of assessing assertive and yielding responses (both positive and negative), (real and ideal) and the applications to the SCI, the SCCAS (Control Content Analysis Scales) , and Control Therapy. Subsequent sections report the data from each of the different vignettes, (and then a summary of six cases across vignettes) and can be clicked on independently. In each section, in addition to providing the above information, we also offer suggestions for future research, and propose -- based on the data and our own assessment-- what would be qualities of wise, psychologically healthy response(s) in each section.1
Instructions for a training package combining Zen meditation and behavioral self management strategies
by Deane H. Shapiro, Jr., Ph.D.
Instructions for a training package combining Zen meditation and behavioral self management strategies. Psychologia, 1978, 21: 70-76.
Reprinted (in part) in William H. Cormier and L. Sherilyn Cormier, “Interviewing Strategies for Helpers: Fundamental Skills and Cognitive Behavioral Interventions,” 2nd edition, Monterey, California: Brooks- Cole, 1985, pages 448-457.