Control Therapy – Professional Comments

Professional Comments on Previous Work on Control Therapy
and the Shapiro Control Inventory (SCI)*

An impressive piece of scholarship.

Albert Bandura, Ph.D.
Jordan Professor of Psychology
Stanford University
Past President, American Psychological Association.
Author: Self-Efficacy: The Exercise of Control

A masterpiece on the topic of personal control and how it can be applied in the context of psychotherapy. The book provides a biopsychosocial model of control that is well documented in the research literature and reviewed comprehensively throughout the book. The concept of control is operationalized and assessed with particular relevance for clinical applications for matched intervention techniques. Most unique about Shapiro's and Astin's approach is that it provides an integrative approach to both western control interventions in psychotherapy (e.g. self-management theory) and transpersonal or eastern orientations to control (e.g., surrender, acceptance, and letting-go of active control). This is a landmark book.

Alan Marlatt, Ph.D.
Professor of Psychology and Director of the Addictive
Behavior Research Center, University of Washington,
Past President, Association for the Advancement of Behavior Therapy

A substantive contribution to the literature, not only for practicing clinicians looking for a theoretical framework on which to base their therapy, but also for clinical researchers interested in the construct of control. I am extremely impressed.

Kenneth A. Wallston, Ph.D.
Professor of Psychology,
Vanderbilt University
Co-Author, Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scales

Control Therapy is an excellent, comprehensive survey of the state-of-the-art in control theory and therapy. By avoiding power struggles with clients, learning how to harness and productively channel the client's needs for power, and using tools such as the Self-Management Contract and Intention to Change and Goal Setting Forms, clinicians can significantly increase the positive shared control of all involved in the healing process.

Ellen McGrath, Ph.D.
Past President, Division of Psychotherapy,
American Psychological Association

A gem! A wonderful integration of theory and research on the role of control in health and healing. Control Therapy should be required reading for psychologists, psychiatrists, and all healthcare professionals who wish to help their clients gain control of their lives and foster healthy control in society as a whole.

Gary E.R. Schwartz, Ph.D.
Professor of Psychology, Neurology, Psychiatry, and Medicine, University of Arizona
Past President, Division of Health Psychology
American Psychological Association

This is an excellent book that touches upon the very heart of control issues in health and human development. The authors offer a unique integration of scientific information and spiritual wisdom in suggesting practical methods for therapists and other health professionals.

Michael Mahoney, Ph.D., Author, Human Change Processes

A monumental synthesis, giving rise to something profoundly new in Western behavioral science--a wisdom-based framework for understanding self and other and the full spectrum of the possible in the therapeutic relationship.

Jon Kabat-Zinn, Ph.D.
Department of Medicine
Director, Center for Mindfulness in Medicine, Healthcare, and Society
University of Massachusetts Medical Center

A landmark work documenting the importance of personal control in both mental and physical health. Drs. Shapiro and Astin do a masterful job of weaving theory and research together with practical clinical strategies for facilitating an individuals' development of health, mastery, and control.

Kenneth R. Pelletier, Ph.D.
Stanford Center for Research in Disease Prevention
Stanford University Medical School


Additional Comments on Control Therapy


Comments About the Shapiro Control Inventory (SCI)
(From the 13th Buros Institute Mental Measurement Yearbook)

The SCI is a sophisticated instrument with substantial validity and reliability. Item statements for the sense of control and desire for control scales were derived from carefully constructed theoretical rationale, examined for clinical utility, and piloted for clarity and accuracy with respect to content.

Although the content of control has been featured in several other theories (learned helplessness, self-efficacy, need for control), it has not been measured effectively by existing instruments in a comprehensive manner with specific focus on several unique domains. The SCI addresses sense of control on twenty-five parameters, and features two contrasting modes of control (assertive, problem focused mastery of the situation versus learning to accept self or yielding to the situation).

Overall, the SCI's performance in differentiating among groups was superior when compared to that for the Rotter Locus of Control and the Wallstons' Health Locus of Control instruments.

The instrument provides provocative and interesting information for the client as for the therapist. It is equally useful for research as well as clinical applications and it is the only modern instrument that measures control comprehensively across several important domains.

*Shapiro, D.H. & Astin, J.A. Control Therapy: An Integrated Approach to Psychotherapy, Health, and Healing. New York: John Wiley.


EXCERPTED COMMENTS FROM BUROS INSTITUTE REVIEWERS: In summary, the SCI is a sophisticated instrument with substantial validity and reliability that also provides provocative and interesting results for the client as for the therapist...

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Uses of the Shapiro Control Inventory by other professionals:

Read the additional uses of SCI